CITATION AND STYLE GUIDES

referenceforwriters:

These guides will help ensure you stick to certain styles when writing and correctly cite your sources.

  • APA Style: On the APA Style blog, you can get access to the fundamentals of American Psychological Association style, updates on specific style elements, and find loads of other reference material.
  • Associated Press Style: If you’re working on a journalistic piece, you’ll need to use AP style. Learn the fundamentals from this guidebook on OWL.
  • Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications: This guide provides examples of the most common government document citations. These examples are based on the Chicago/Turabian standard bibliographic style.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style Online: The Chicago Manual of Style’s website includes an online forum, guidelines for basic rules, and even creates quick citations.
  • Citing Sources: Learn how and why to cite your sources in this helpful guide from Duke University Library.
  • Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide: The serious scholarly analysis of comic art needs an equally serious way to cite that material. This is the scholar’s pop art guide to citation.
  • The Economist Style Guide: Want to write for The Economist? Whether you do or not, these are some solid style rules for any journalistic writing.
  • The Elements of Style: This classic book by Strunk and White is offered up in its entirety on Bartleby.com so you can improve your writing without spending a dime.
  • Footnote and Citation Style Guides: You’ll find a vast array of citation styles for business, education, engineering, science, and social science from this useful resource compiled by Lehigh University.
  • How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: This site will help you compile a bibliography when you’re ready to pull all those citations together.
  • MLA Style: Not sure how to cite something correctly in MLA style? Use this online handbook to get started on doing things the right way.
  • Turabian Quick Guide: Essentially the same as Chicago Style, this documentation system does have a few differences which you can learn about here.

+ 150 Resources to Help you Write Better, Faster, and More Persuasively 

(via characterandwritinghelp)


Q
I want to write a story from the POV of the villain, but I have no clue how to go about that. Suggestions?
Anonymous
A

thewritingcafe:

Your Villain is Still the Protagonist

If your villain is the MC and the POV character, they are the protagonist. Every protagonist needs an antagonist of some kind, whether this antagonist is a real person or inner conflict or something else.

Like all protagonists, your villain needs a motive and their antagonist needs to prevent them from reaching that motive, whether directly or indirectly. Your villain has something to fight for.

With POV characters and protagonists, you need the reader to like the villain. If they don’t like the villain, they at least need to root for them. This is very possible. Go through the likable characters tag on the tags page for tips on that.

Your Villain is Still a Villain

Villains are the bad guys, even if they don’t see themselves that way. The reader needs to know that what your character does is wrong. Go through the villains tag on the tags page for tips on writing a villain.

Your Villain is Still a Character

When the hero is the POV character, it may seem like the villain doesn’t go through a lot of change. POV characters usually get the most change because they are the POV character. Your villain, like all characters, should be round and dynamic. They need to change over time. They need good traits and bad traits. They need to be complex. They need a back story, relationships, wants, failures, and everything else that makes a character realistic.



I made my own day.

wonderingwandering:

  • "Who was the main presidential candidate who ran against George W. Bush?"
  • "Al Gore."
  • "What does he have when listening to music?"
  • "Rhythm?"

Al Gore rhythms. Algorithms.


Q
Hi! I was wondering if you guys had any ideas on how to write an android character that would be able to blend in successfully with a mostly human population, while still having abilities/skills beyond what the average human would have? Love the blog, by the way, you guys always have awesome content!
Anonymous
A

fuckyeahcharacterdevelopment:

Ah, thank you for loving the blog.

One successful way of integrating a non-human into a human society (so that nobody notices they’re not human) is to try a subtle approach when noting their differences.

I’m going to assume you want your readers to know this character is different (even if they don’t know it is an android), so my tip will be geared towards portraying this character in a way that sets them apart from humans, but not enough to betray their true species. For ease, I’m going to call the android a ‘he’ throughout. Please don’t read too much into this; androids, like all characters, can be female, gender fluid or have no gender at all depending on the writer’s intentions for the character.

Behaviour

Every person the world over has their own little routine, and their own habits and preferences. Your android character will be no different, only theirs might consist of things a human routine wouldn’t.

Describe your android’s daily routine. What does he need to do everyday to ensure he’s running correctly? For example, humans need to eat food at regular intervals and our routine reflects this: we have breakfast, lunch and dinner. Therefore, when we see somebody eating out on the street or in a restaurant, we don’t double-take or comment on it. Eating is normal behaviour.

So what is normal behaviour for your android? You need to know what kind of things your human characters might notice him doing, but not be so concerned that they question his species about it. E.g. maybe he’s more active at night than in the day (the only reason most humans aren’t is because it’s ‘sleeping’ time. Androids don’t necessarily need to ‘sleep’).

Speech

I’ll put a link to a previous ask I answered about this in the resources bit, but I’m going to add some things that are relevant to your question.

Generally, if someone has a speech impediment or struggles to verbally string a sentence together, most people won’t openly comment on it. They’ll notice it, but they won’t point and shout aloud, ‘SHE’S TALKING FUNNY. SHE MUST BE AN ALIEN!’

Think about your android’s language and the figures of speech he uses, things that might draw a human’s attention (well, for starters, we don’t refer to one another as ‘humans’, but ‘people’). This is a subtle way of allowing the reader to wonder, without necessarily being able to guess the truth.

Also, Androids, like most other robotic beings, lack human emotions. At least at the same intensity as we experience them. Therefore, your android’s language will be different in various situations to what a human being’s would be. So how would your android respond to these kind of questions/statements?:

'We're going to have a baby.'

'Today is my birthday! Are you as excited as I am?'

'There was a guy selling puppies on the corner three days ago and - and - the box is still there, with just one of the puppies left in it, and I -'

'Watch where the fuck you're going, moron!'

'Hey, babe, lookin' for someone to make you feel special tonight?'

'My leg, it's caught. I think it's bleeding. Oh, God. I can't feel it.'

Remember, empathy is the ability to understand and share feelings. People sharp notice when someone responds in a different way to how they would expect, since the majority of us are capable of empathy.

Appearance

Androids are a good choice when it comes to picking a robot that can blend in with humans because they’re often made to have a human appearance. If there were to be any differences though, what would they be? Think David from the film A.I. When he tries to eat food like the human he’s modelled off, he has a mini melt-down and his face looks unhinged.

For us, sweating through our clothes or having a period in white pants is mortifying. If your android is focused on remaining secret amongst the humans, what kind of normal bodily functions of his own would he make an effort to cover up?

I always liked the idea of being able to hear an android’s internal mechanisms when you stand close to it. Our intestines and stomachs make noises, so what noises would your android make?

What kind of expressions is your android capable of, too? What do people see when he smiles? Laughs? Mourns? Shouts with anger?

How does he stand and sit? What is his posture like? How does it look in his surroundings?

Think about all of the little differences that could easily be explained or ignored by the humans that surround him. If you point them out, your reader will notice, even if the other characters don’t.

Abilities

This is the best way I can put it: Imagine you’ve landed on a planet which belongs to slug-like aliens that move super, super slow. You’re just new there, so you run around looking for the nearest life form. Because these aliens have never seen anything move at a fast speed, they panic and flail, or stare in awe. Since running is a normal human thing that we do, you wouldn’t know not to do it unless you were aware it wasn’t right for the surroundings.

Does your android have any similar abilities, that are normal to him, but would appear strange to a human?

This can include impressive intellectual skills, such as completing calculations at high-speeds, reciting large quantities of text perfectly, being able to recreate a model or drawing with accuracy and retaining every piece of information he comes across. Most human beings aren’t capable of such feats, so it would draw attention immediately.

That’s just about everything. Your human characters can notice differences between themselves and The Android, but don’t make it too easy for them to see through him. A lot of people make an effort to explain what they see in human terms, because we have no other way of understanding. So when we see someone walking through our estate at midnight on the dot every single night, we don’t think, ‘This is it. It’s the start of an invasion’. We’re more likely to reason, ‘She must work really late…’ or, ‘I wonder if he has some kind of drinking problem to be out at this time every night?’

By all means let your human characters notice, but don’t let them speculate too much until the evidence is hard to ignore.

I hope this is what you were after anyway and that it helps somewhat… Best of luck!

Resources:

- enlee


nowyoukno:

Now You Know useful websites:
pipl.com - a search engine for finding people.
privnote.com - write a note to someone that
will self-destruct after they read it.
recipepuppy.com - search for recipes based
on the ingredients you have.
thefuckingweather.com - a more profane look
at the weather.
wolframalpha.com - a computational knowledge
engine.
wikirhymer.com - an online rhyming dictionary.
unlistmy.info - find out which websites store
data about you, and tell them to unlist your info.
thistothat.com - find out the best way to glue
this to that.
and daily facts here!

nowyoukno:

Now You Know useful websites:


Send me “Librarian!” + a number and I’ll grab the closest book, flip to that page number, and make us a starter using a random line of text from said page!


unwrapping:

Five Text Checkers for Tumblr Posts: 
titlecapitalization.comCopy your Tumblr post title or headline. Paste it into this site to automatically initial cap and lowercase words for titles.
hemingwayapp.comHemingway finds hard-to-read sentences and complex words, highlights passive voice and tracks your adverbs. Copy your text. Go to Hemingway and highlight the gray sample text on the site. Paste your writing into Hemingway, and see how readable your text is.
read-able.comWant more detail about readability? Go to read-able.com and click the “Test by Direct Input” tab. Copy and paste your writing into the text box. Submit your text to see six measures of readability, word count and other text stats.
wordcounter.comFind potentially overused words in your Tumblr post. Use wordcounter.com for a ranked list of your most used words.
polishmywriting.comCheck your writing for spelling errors, style issues and grammar problems. Part of “After the Deadline,” this tool does not speak Tumblr.

unwrapping:

Five Text Checkers for Tumblr Posts: 

  1. titlecapitalization.com
    Copy your Tumblr post title or headline. Paste it into this site to automatically initial cap and lowercase words for titles.

  2. hemingwayapp.com
    Hemingway finds hard-to-read sentences and complex words, highlights passive voice and tracks your adverbs. Copy your text. Go to Hemingway and highlight the gray sample text on the site. Paste your writing into Hemingway, and see how readable your text is.

  3. read-able.com
    Want more detail about readability? Go to read-able.com and click the “Test by Direct Input” tab. Copy and paste your writing into the text box. Submit your text to see six measures of readability, word count and other text stats.

  4. wordcounter.com
    Find potentially overused words in your Tumblr post. Use wordcounter.com for a ranked list of your most used words.

  5. polishmywriting.com
    Check your writing for spelling errors, style issues and grammar problems. Part of “After the Deadline,” this tool does not speak Tumblr.

(via characterandwritinghelp)



apoetreflects:

Use quotation marks for the titles of

  • Poems

  • Stories

  • Essays

  • Songs

  • Chapter titles

  • Magazine or newspaper articles

  • Individual episodes of a television series

  • Page of a Web site

Use italic or underlining for the titles of

  • Collections of poetry, stories, or essays

  • Titles of books

  • Titles of CDs or tapes or records (Do they still make records?)

  • Magazines or newspapers

  • Television and radio shows

  • Plays

  • The title of the entire Web site

Here are some examples:

  • “A Thousand Excuses for Missing the Tax Deadline”(a newspaper article) in The Ticker Tape Journal (a newspaper)

  • “Ode to Taxes Uncalculated” (a poem) in The Tax Poems (a book of poetry)

  • “I Got the W2 Blues” (a song title) on Me and My Taxes (a CD containing many songs)

  • “On the Art of Deductions” (an essay) in Getting Rich and Staying Rich (a magazine)

  • “Small Business Expenses” (an individual episode) on The IRS Report (a television series)

  • April 15th (a play)

  • “Deductions Unlimited” (a page in a Web site) in Beat the IRS (the title of a Web site)

When a title is alone on a line—on a title page or simply at the top of page one of a paper—don’t use italic or quotation marks. Don’t underline the title either. The centering calls attention to the title. Nothing else is needed. One exception: If part of the title is the name of another work, treat that part as you would any other title. For example, suppose you’ve written a brilliant essay about Gloria’s poem, “I Hate Homework.” The title page contains this line, centered:

Freudian Imagery in “I Hate Homework”

If your brilliant essay is about the magazine Happy Thoughts, the title page includes this line (also centered):

The Decline of the School Magazine: A Case Study of Happy Thoughts

—Geraldine Woods, from "When to Put Titles in Quotation Marks," in English Grammar for Dummies, 2nd Edition (For Dummies, 2010)

(via characterandwritinghelp)